Robert BellahSociologist Robert Bellah is Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. (Photo by Simon OosthuizenSimon)

On October 15-17, the Center of Theological Inquiry in Princeton, New Jersey held an international symposium to foster interdisciplinary dialogue on spiritual progress. The forum was an invitation-only event that brought the insights of major thinkers, which included Lord Jonathan Sacks, Marilynne Robinson, and Robert Bellah. The forum was chaired by our very own host Krista Tippett at Benjamin Franklin Hall of the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia.

Thankfully, the symposium recorded most of the conversations, and guided by Krista's notes, I wanted to share some of the more interesting points of the conversations and responses. Robert Bellah is one of the premiere sociologists and educators in the United States. For more than 30 years, he was a professor of sociology at the University of California at Berkeley and recently published Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age. It's an ambitious work, to say the least, that probes humanity's biological past and "offers what is frequently seen as a forbidden theory of the origin of religion that goes deep into evolution, especially but not exclusively cultural evolution."

In this first clip, Mr. Bellah refers to the Axial Age, a period of several hundred years during the middle of the last millennium BCE when religions played a vital role in the development of great civilizations of the East before Western European expansion came into play. As Mr. Bellah strenuously points out in one story, Confucianism has a deep sense of a "universal ethic" that transcends a more survivalist tribal sensibility:

And, Mr. Bellah challenges scientists and scholars to take a stance, an ethical position that takes into account "a concern for those who are left out" of the intellectual discussion about such things as the sociology of religion:

Near the end of his response to other scholars' questions and statements, Mr. Bellah describes how his research into other religions has strengthened his Christian faith in practical ways — and that he has come to the conclusion that people cannot achieve agreement on one true religion and that no one religion has all the answers:

The complete audio of this symposium will appear on the Center of Theological Inquiry's website later this year.

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1Reflection

Reflections

Robert Bella states that people who do not have a religion will have trouble with his class. I believe that to think you don't have a religion is in fact a religion. Religion is the act of believing. If you choose to believe that there is no God or there is no purpose then you are left with what you believe. This is a religion. Faith is what defines the truth. When we seek to find answers to the unknowable we operate in the realm of faith. It is impossible to know through conscious whether God exists or the meaning of your existence. We must act if faith to answer these questions. If your faith tells you there is no God that is as much a religion as believing god does exist. To believe you are brotherless is as much a religion as believing we are all brothers. What do you believe? I hope that whatever you believe it brings you joy and comfort and allows to experience life in a positive way.

apples