Mike Rowe Testifying Before Senate Committee

"The skills gap is a reflection of what we value. To close the gap, we need to change the way the country feels about work."
Mike Rowe

Working is part of our genetic make-up in the United States. One of my personal goals producing for this program is to present the many forms of grittier intelligence that exist in the world — reminding myself and our audiences of the intellectual integrity and the nose-to-the-grindstone beauty of people in this land I call home.

The value of work and how we work and how we become civic beings is embedded in this concept of everyday living. I ask myself, "Why did so many people love the story about the oldest living man from Montana who just recently died?" I don't think that it was just about longevity, but that he was a railroad man who had practical advice and obvious wisdom. He distilled the complexity of life into practical advice that I believe he formed by working the lines and the farms. I think all of us long to know more about people like that, the quiescent majority.

Reading the following testimony from Mike Rowe, the creator and host of Dirty Jobs, before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation has reignited my urgency to find more of these voices in the months to come. Here's his speech in its entirety; it's well worth the time:

"Chairman Rockefeller, Ranking Member Hutchison and members of this committee, my name is Mike Rowe, and I want to thank you all very much for the opportunity to testify before you today.

I'm here today because of my grandfather.

His name was Carl Knobel, and he made his living in Baltimore as a master electrician. He was also a plumber, a mechanic, a mason, and a carpenter. Everyone knew him as a jack-of-all-trades. I knew him as a magician.

For most of his life, my grandfather woke up clean and came home dirty. In between, he accomplished things that were nothing short of miraculous. Some days he might re-shingle a roof. Or rebuild a motor. Or maybe run electricity out to our barn. He helped build the church I went to as a kid, and the farmhouse my brothers and I grew up in. He could fix or build anything, but to my knowledge he never once read the directions. He just knew how stuff worked.

I remember one Saturday morning when I was 12. I flushed the toilet in the same way I always had. The toilet however, responded in a way that was completely out of character. There was a rumbling sound, followed by a distant gurgle. Then, everything that had gone down reappeared in a rather violent and spectacular fashion.

Naturally, my grandfather was called in to investigate, and within the hour I was invited to join he and my dad in the front yard with picks and shovels.

By lunch, the lawn was littered with fragments of old pipe and mounds of dirt. There was welding and pipe-fitting, blisters and laughter, and maybe some questionable language. By sunset we were completely filthy. But a new pipe was installed, the dirt was back in the hole, and our toilet was back on its best behavior. It was one of my favorite days ever.

Thirty years later in San Francisco when my toilet blew up again. This time, I didn't participate in the repair process. I just called my landlord, left a check on the kitchen counter, and went to work. When I got home, the mess was cleaned up and the problem was solved. As for the actual plumber who did the work, I never even met him.

It occurred to me that I had become disconnected from a lot of things that used to fascinate me. I no longer thought about where my food came from, or how my electricity worked, or who fixed my pipes, or who made my clothes. There was no reason to. I had become less interested in how things got made, and more interested in how things got bought.

At this point my grandfather was well into his 80s, and after a long visit with him one weekend, I decided to do a TV show in his honor. Today, Dirty Jobs is still on the air, and I am here before this committee, hoping to say something useful. So, here it is.

I believe we need a national PR Campaign for Skilled Labor. A big one. Something that addresses the widening skills gap head on, and reconnects the country with the most important part of our workforce.

Right now, American manufacturing is struggling to fill 200,000 vacant positions. There are 450,000 openings in trades, transportation and utilities. The skills gap is real, and it’s getting wider. In Alabama, a third of all skilled tradesmen are over 55. They're retiring fast, and no one is there to replace them.

Alabama's not alone. A few months ago in Atlanta I ran into Tom Vilsack, our Secretary of Agriculture. Tom told me about a governor who was unable to move forward on the construction of a power plant. The reason was telling. It wasn't a lack of funds. It wasn't a lack of support. It was a lack of qualified welders.

In general, we're surprised that high unemployment can exist at the same time as a skilled labor shortage. We shouldn't be. We've pretty much guaranteed it.

In high schools, the vocational arts have all but vanished. We've elevated the importance of "higher education" to such a lofty perch that all other forms of knowledge are now labeled "alternative." Millions of parents and kids see apprenticeships and on-the-job-training opportunities as "vocational consolation prizes," best suited for those not cut out for a four-year degree. And still, we talk about millions of "shovel ready" jobs for a society that doesn't encourage people to pick up a shovel.

In a hundred different ways, we have slowly marginalized an entire category of critical professions, reshaping our expectations of a "good job" into something that no longer looks like work. A few years from now, an hour with a good plumber —  if you can find one — is going to cost more than an hour with a good psychiatrist. At which point we'll all be in need of both.

I came here today because guys like my grandfather are no less important to civilized life than they were 50 years ago. Maybe they're in short supply because we don't acknowledge them they way we used to. We leave our check on the kitchen counter, and hope the work gets done. That needs to change.

My written testimony includes the details of several initiatives designed to close the skills gap, all of which I've had the privilege to participate in. Go Build Alabama, I Make America, and my own modest efforts through Dirty Jobs and mikeroweWORKS. I'm especially proud to announce "Discover Your Skills," a broad-based initiative from Discovery Communications that I believe can change perceptions in a meaningful way.

I encourage you to support these efforts, because closing the skills gap doesn't just benefit future tradesmen and the companies desperate to hire them. It benefits people like me, and anyone else who shares my addiction to paved roads, reliable bridges, heating, air conditioning, and indoor plumbing.

The skills gap is a reflection of what we value. To close the gap, we need to change the way the country feels about work."

If you have suggestions for voices that could fill this gap in our coverage, please drop me a line in the comments or by sending an email to tgilliss@onbeing.org.

Share Your Reflection



I think I shall send this to Governor Malloy(CT) whom wishes to shut down the technical schools in Connecticut.

As encouragment or "stop wait a minute!"  Does all the power go to the top or can't burocrats be voted OUT.

 We all can't be doctors,lawyers, models, and sports moguls.It's great to have goals but  once again we seek the flash while shooting for the cheapest way to get the rest done. There is integrity  and honor in a job well done. And we all have the same job -from the doctor to the janitor- it's a job that needs to be done. We are in the maintenance era of our country, we have achieved so much and now need to honor the work of those achievements -by our families who came before us - and maintain the beauty of who we are. Recognize all around you who participate in our world as a very necessary and integral part of your world, our world -the world.

We can't all be doctors, lawyers, models, and sports moguls. Nor should we WANT to. That is the problem. Remember the old idea of the dignity of labor? We should impress on our children that there are innumerable ways to make a living that help make the world work.

I feel one of the biggest causes for this the liberal machine at work in our schools, media etc.. The mentality that your opinion is only worth something if you have a college education is ridiculous. We need to instill some self-confidence and sense of worth in anyone putting the effort forth. We are a great nation but its not because of our college educated its because of people out there putting the effort forth in whatever they do. The key is the amount of effort and where their values are.

Before I moved back to Iowa I had a little condo in a very high scale building on the lake in Chicago. The beautiful building was 35 years old, and the unit was a mess when I bought it.  I slowly fixed it up and in the process learned that the building had a hidden maze of "fixes" made up of scavaged parts by 4 old men who literally kept the whole thing going.  They were all in their last year before retirement.  I sold the unit with the realization that this is probably true of most everything.  It was definitely time to return home to Iowa where people still know how to get things done. 

Tom Paxton's early song "I'm the man that built the bridges" could be Mike's suggested national program's theme song.  Studs Turkel's "Working" should be weaved into its script.
Thanks, Trent, for posting Rowe's testimony and words.

I think this needs to be shared with Michigan's legislators, board of education, and governor, whose Michigan Merit Curriculum has had the unintended consequence of reducing enrollments in Career and Tech Ed. classes and programs in high schools, and has led to the narrowing of our conceptualization of what it means to be well-prepared for a sustainable career in Michigan, one of the states hardest hit by the economic downturn. 

I'm also sharing this with one of my favorite CTE teachers in Michigan, Mr. Rogers, whose instructional videos are featured at www.youtube.com and whose blog is at http://www.misterrogersrants.blogspot.com.

As a special educator, and as a learning disabilities consultant, I am a big fan of career and technical education, and am one of the first to say that CTE saves lives.

Kathleen Kosobud

I work in public schools and I see so many decent kids develop poor attitudes and give up on academics, leading to the behavior problems that drives talented teachers out of the profession. These kids are not unintelligent, just smart in other ways. But they are forced into academics that are more tedious, and much more irrelevant, than when I went to the very same school not that long ago. Soon my state will require Algebra 2 to graduate. Really? I was in the honor society and I found Algebra 2 difficult. I haven't used it since, nor do I remember how to do it. Rethink work. Redefine smart. Broaden the definition of education.

I have always admired the "Can do" attitude of my uncles. They saw value in "fixing" rather than replacing with cheaper quality materials. My Uncle Bob could build a cabinet from scratch while you were drawing up a plan. The incredible ability to "visualize" helped try many things without worrying about making mistakes. That is all part of the learning process. Helping schools to understand those values will help bring the changes you are looking for.

 I think it would be really interesting to talk to people like the "Car Talk Guys" and other very well educated people who decide to not be "knowledge workers," but rather people who actually create with their hands.   My husband makes handcrafted furniture in the middle of the city with minimal use of power tools.  People then ask why his truly functional art costs more than what they'd pay at Ikea.  It's sad that our culture has lost respect for the wisdom and craft of artisans.

I disagree that the Magliozzi brothers aren't "knowledge workers." Sure, they run a garage, but you know them as the Car Talk Guys - i.e., for their radio show.

YOU ARE ABSOLUTELY RIGHT.....When they can purchase things made in china and are cheap, they lose interest in the well made hand made works of art that will last forever. I am an artist as well. I feel your pain and I am learning ever so quickly what it means to be a "STARVING ARTIST"..!!!!

This discussion is one of paramount importance today--we have stratified into the "knowledge worker" class and a class of low-paid, low skilled service workers, with relatively little work for those skilled in machine operations, the making and  repairing of our material artifacts, or any brain/hand engaging work for those whose gifts are in the making of complex material artifacts.  We have outsourced our needs for these things to other country and the social ecology of our culture is the worse for it.  

Matthew Crawford, a professional philosopher and professional motorcycle mechanic has written the best analysis of this in "Shop class as soulcraft"  I highly recommend it if you are interested in the spiritual/philosophical underpinnings of how the mind and the physical products of the mind (a chair, a boat, a Triumph motorcycle) are a complex interplay of great intellectual challenge and merit.  

Shop Class as Soulcraft came to mind before I was even halfway through the speech. A great book.

I taught jr. high English for only 4 years, but I learned that intelligence could not be equated with essay-writing and aceing the test. I observed young'uns whose intelligence flowed straight from brain to fingertips, few words required. And I was saddened by how the system ignored, even squelched the natural curiosity of such students.  That curiosity is, in fact, the very bedrock of an educable mind, and a sure sign of intelligence.  Such students are often very impatient with our teach-to-the-bottom educational system.

When we bought our neighborhood hardware store, it was those "handy" kids we sought to hire, for their fascination with how things work is a huge asset and guarantor or their success in helping customers solve practical problems. Worst of all is to be a handy kid in a wealthy home where any college is affordable, and no other option considered. Such kids end up drinking their way through college and maybe even several more years of life before allowing themselves the dignity of pursuing their natural interests in carpentry, mechanics, electronics, farming, design....  We practice such educational snobbery and elitism that kids feel there's no reason to apply themselves in high school if they don't see college in their future.  Little do they realize how they will need all the verbal and mathematical skills they can master just to protect themselves and their assets as they navigate this global life..It's late... I ramble. You hit a flashpoint! We as a nation cannot afford to continue with our shallow and simplistic thinking about public education.

I was listening to a radio show the other day about how young adults going to college are leaving with tons of debt, but no jobs. One of the speakers expressed the same attitude as the above article that as a nation we need to find value in work again. Everyone wants to go to college because that has been the mantra from all parts of society for a long time. Statistics tell us that the more education you have the more money you'll get and nobody wants less, yet this new statistic tells us that less than half actually find work in their field of study. One young lady on the show was said to have $400,000 in debt and not yet finished with her veterinarian degree (Yikes!). I believe that the problem of a devalued appreciation of the working class comes from multiply sources, but I think all roads that lead to this devaluation leads to this group of people who champion "centralized world markets." From their philosophy has come the idea of let your money work for you, instead of you actually working, of corning the market to become the new "Too big to fail" corporation, of profits over community, and the list goes on. This idea can not be fully expressed here, due to the amount space allowed, but the idea of man living simply, working within his ability and living a life based upon G-d, family, and community has been usurped by those who have replaced it with professionalism, corporations, intelligentsia, and entertainment. 

Great points! I think we need to change the conversation from "college graduates make more money" to a more realistic metric of earning to debt ratio averaged over all college, trade school and high school graduates.

We have been blinded by the "college syndrome" : i.e.: in order to succeed you need a college education!  All of this hype is a load of bull----, promulgated by the money pits known as colleges and/or universities.  Rather than having qualified plumbers, electricians, chefs and the like, the educators would like us to accept BA/BS, MA, or PhD candidates to sell us the coffee at McD, or the 2x4 at Lowe's.  Talk about overqualified?  Then when we need a carpenter or plumber, one is not around since the politicians cut funding for the alternate or technical studies programs throughout the U.S. but kept the funding open for the major (sports) colleges/universities.  Toilet backing up?  Roof collapsing?  Shock from wall switch?  Call a college/university "hot line" and they will tell you when the next sports extravaganza is, or Sorority/Fraternity bash, but no help in living the good life.    

For most of his life my husband "woke up clean and came home dirty". He worked in 'manufacturing'...56 hours a week...
it was the 'overtime' hours that allowed us to save money for retirement. We've been married for almost 48 years.
He retired at the age of 68. He is the love of my life, the smartest man I know.
Thank you for the opportunity to pay tribute, here, to a real 'working man'. He is one of the unsung heroes you speak of.

Way to go lady! There seems to be fewer and fewer women these days that value and praise their husbands. It must be an offshoot of women's lib or something. "...You can't say anything respectful to a man that's too demeaning!" "...You are woman, hear you roar!"

I did both kinds of work. I was an aircraft mechanic and I did plumbing and electrician work for an involuntary slum lord, but jobs that value these experiences are scarce and there are hundreds of times as many mechanics applying for them as there are openings everywhere I see. I also supported myself as a professional student and now have a PhD. I do adjunct faculty work which is as difficult as mechanical work. The pay for all but the very few who get tenured is typically less than 20K while the football coach gets several hundred times that pay. What we have is a loss of values when the authority of skilled or educated people is treated like trash in the economy with a culture that values the unearned stardom of a pop singers who never did the years of hard work it takes to become a real musician.

I have been an instructor for Industrial Arts at the secondary education level, retired, taught at and still am at the college level in machining and quality control, have placed students with employers for internship programs and provided training to employers in several areas of employment needs. Mike Rowe is dead on. The greatest area of change is technolgy and the need for advanced training is required in order to stay competitive.

Thank you. Bless you. Why is it, what seems so obvious to those of us in the real world, is a complete mystery to politicians? Everyone is disconnected, including the "leaders".
I teach science and daily wish we had our voc ed back in the school. How are electricity and plumbing, not part of a technology and engineering curriculum? Because the College Board profits massively when every student is "going to college." Follow the money and let public schools get back to teaching skills needed by the community.
A science teacher.

Mike Rowe is so right. We have tricked ourselves into believing that these trades jobs aren't prestigious. Who wants to "leave home clean and come home dirty" when you can push paper or be a "white collar" worker? Well, we need those too, but when your toilet backs up are you going to call a bureaucrat?

I highly recommend this book that hits on a lot of the same themes: Shopclass as Soulcraft.

This speech is surprising, I really enjoyed to read it, thank you. I read comments and it's true, some kids give up, but it's just because they are in the wrong way, it can be useless to tell that, but you know, everybody need to find their own way, to be aware and productive. Some kids have to reach their bachelor-degree of High School and after choose a way that they like in University, but they don't have to give up before that.

Very Very creative and appreciable article. I really felt proud in reading your article and about the growth. I heard Mike Row and was speechless because he puts an magnanimous effect on the listeners. Work must be valued as work is god. Each and every work should be valued because there is no big and small in it. For every work you get paid. In any business intelligence should be respected and welcomed but not ignoring the work.

Agreed about the vocational pieces of high schools.
Our local high school has a vocational program but it's not what it should be.
It's perceived precisely as this gentlemen points out: a place to resign yourself when all else fails. A place to go when you don't know what to do with yourself.

Instead, it should be this glorious land of learning the crafts offered.

How do we change that?

I don't know but I'm frustrated enough, locally, to consider this long and hard.

Thank you.

Well said! A coincidence that I just re posted one of my favorite programs from On Being "The meaning of intelligence," which makes the same argument. I am a teacher and young people need to know there is hope in a time of high student loan debts and little hope of finding a job after a four year degree.

I have been saying this for years now. How many more unemployed college graduates are we going to produce who are in debt in ways that heretofore were unknown at such an age. Meanwhile, when my 10 year old vehicle decides to hiccup, I'm in dire straights because I can't work without it. The solution to many of our everyday life challenges reside with plumbers, electricians, auto mechanics; skilled craftsmen who make each of our lives better in very significant ways. Vocational education is a very wise investment and can provide a very comfortable life with very little indebtedness for the education received.
In the span of my long adulthood, I have been an RN and I am currently the CEO of two companies. Sutherland Welles Ltd. manufactures a high quality Polymerized Tung Oil finish, right in the little state of Vermont, but the other company, Phoenix Finishing Inc, is a hands-on company that takes unfinished wood and creates beautiful finished pieces.On any given day in my life, the job I love most is the one where I use my hands to create and I get very dirty.

I just returned from shooting 2 episodes with DIY/HGTV for Daryl Hall's Restoration Over-Haul and each and every episodes features some craftsman, working with his/her hands to create this lovely home. Carpenters,furniture makers, electricians, plumbers, landscapers,roofers, stone masons,trash haulers, and even wood finishers like me.All of us filthy and exhausted at the end of the day, but what we have all created is something totally amazing.

Working with my hands requires intense thinking as to process, math,timing make no mistake it's extremely cerebral, but the hook for me is the Zen of where my mind goes when I pick up a brush. Life gets worked out when my brush moves, I can eat as much as I want because I burn it all off, and I sleep soundly.

We have sold our children into incredible financial distress by de-valuing working with our hands as being a "less than" option to an honest and decent life.And we have severely limited our own national goals, policies and security by not valuing vocational education. The piper must be paid and no one is going to like the price.

My father was a child of the depression, World War II disabled veteran, millwright and farmer. His life reflects what makes this country the beacon of hope for people all over the world. Mike Rowe's remarks ring true and rekindle the pride I had growing up on a hard working family farm mid-last-century. Citizens of the USA long to reclaim these types of civic values again. Our leaders just need to find the will to make it so.

College degree which gave me skills of organization and people skills, but have been a general contractor, handyman, fixer-upper for many years and I receive so much satisfaction from the physical labor of accomplishments visible right now. Thanks Mike, we need skilled labor to stay a leader and giver to the wide world of God's creatures.

There is irony, as well as tragedy (and a certain amount of comedy, albeit somewhat dark) in all of this. I'm a 59-year-old woman. I am very bright in all the ways that had guidance counselors unable to see any possible future for me other than college. But I was always far more interested in making things, or fixing things, or taking things apart to see how they worked. As a child of around ten or twelve, I successfully repaired a three-speed bicycle hub, using tiny springs I made from wire I got by unraveling the end of the bike's brake cable. Even the do-it-yourself bike manuals tell you to leave this repair to the pros.

My dad was a draftsman/designer who held at least one patent. Sadly, he died when I was four, and I think any possibility that someone in my young life might have noticed that I had a real gift with Thingsdied with him.

For here is the irony: as a girl, I was not permitted to take shop class, though I would have loved it, and would have excelled. In my late teens/twenties, I looked into cabinetmaking and other trades, but it was quickly made clear to me there was no place for a female in such jobs, at least not for a female who had all possible qualifications for the work except being able to somehow break through this bias (a barrier than sometimes can and has been broken, yet one which no man ever had to get through simply to be allowed to learn a trade). When I called about jobs as an apprentice or assistant or whatever, men laughed at me, told me it was a man's job, hung up on me.

Eventually, I bought equipment and taught myself to build furniture; I got interested in the lathe, taught myself turning, and have been self-employed as an artistic woodturner for thirty years. I've taught all across the US and Canada, and have written two books and many articles about Woodturning.

My point is only to add this to the reasons Mike cites to explain so well what has happened in our country with regard to so-called "manual labor,"(which nearly always requires far more intelligence than is believed by those who don't do it): so often, in the past, the skilled trades have had structures in place that systemically excluded not only women, but often people of races or ethnicities considered undesirable.

To be sure, had I been able to become a cabinetmaker, plumber, electrician, or other skilled worker, I would be nearing retirement. But it is likely that my presence in such a trade would have encouraged, at least indirectly, other women to pursue similar work. I am certain I would have done what I could to have made the work more open to people of diverse demographics, as I have done to some small extent in the field of artistic Woodturning.

I agree totally with all of Mike's interpretations of why and how this situation has arisen,and the current and future consequences for our society. This is just another layer to the whole issue, and one that, IMHO, still has some relevance.

Trent Gilliss's picture

Well said, Judy. Your contribution to this discussion is much appreciated.

The problem as I see it, is our welfare system, a byproduct of which, encourages people not to work. One would think it would be more cost effective to train those with aptitudes rather than just dole out checks.

My work as an engineer could not happen if it weren't for the people who operate the drill rigs, excavators, and trucks and install the infrastructure and equipment (in sometimes harsh conditions). It's a true team effort to get real work done.

The sort of work that Mr. Rowe thinks our society denigrates is the sort of work that can demand just as much attention to detail, problem-solving, and varieties of social intelligence as the so-called "knowledge workers" must demonstrate. The physical labor that paved our roads, built our bridges, and won coal from the pits can connect us spiritually to what it means to be, as surely as Dr. Tyson's work in astronomy helps us understand our place in the universe.

Too many legislators involved in education who don't have a clue what is needed. Technical education should begin in the 6th. grade. High schools are filled with kids who could use a good technical education. The Career & Technical Education should start at an early age, remain rigorous throughout high school and graduate kids who can enter the workforce with some skills.

My dad left home clean and came home dirty. He was a journeyman electrician. But he had dreamed of being an electrical engineer. That dream was shortcurcuited by his fathers death. My dad and his new bride moved back to Idaho to help out his mom who still had two daughters in high school.

It was my dad's dream that his children would go to college, and not have to work as hard as he did. He liked his work, but it cost him his health. Asbestos in his lungs. He nearly lost his life once in a workplace explosion (not his fault--someone else playing with what they had no business touching). He wanted his children and grandchildren to have safe jobs.

The last decade of dad's life he didn't breath without pain. Still, he worked until he was 80 years old, because he enjoyed his job. But if that asbestos had not been in his lungs, he would still be with me today.

I write this not because I don't believe people should work in these jobs, but because in many places there are moves to roll back the labor safety measures that have helped ensure that no one else ends up like my dad did. Everyone should have work they love. My dad sure did. He told his co workers that their jobs changed peoples lives, and to always remember that. He built schools, hospitals, jails, courthouses, college classrooms, prisons and wired the turbines on a hydroelectric dam. He built the house I grew up in.

THe other thing is that these jobs used to pay well--not all of them do anymore.

Thank you

In my opinion, so much of our disdain for trade work is rooted in our throw away culture. Growing up in the 50’s, I remember my father fixing many things. If it was beyond his capability, we would call a repair person or take it to a shop. Now we spend thousands of dollars on appliances and technology that seemingly cannot be fixed. Planned obsolescence seems to be the manufacturer’s mantra. Americans are all keen to buy the latest, newest, gadget, but when if one fails we cast it aside or worse yet ship it off to a foreign country for children to disassemble the toxic parts. I believe that we need to not only value the work of our remaining skilled workforce, but look at our own lives and honestly ask what it is that we value. Is it things rather than relationships? Is it ownership more than sharing? And is it a salary more than the satisfaction found in craftsmanship and artistry.

With 100 million Americans on public assistance of one form or the other,we need to get back to work.

Let it be known that the vast majority of those on public assistance do work, but they are forced to work in service-industry jobs that do not grant enough hours or wages to stay afloat.

This also reminds me of an old joke a urologist friend loved to tell: The urologist was complaining to the plumber about the plumber's high fee after only an hour of work. He says to the plumber, "You know, I am a urologist and I don't even make this much in an hour." The plumber says, "You know, when I was a urologist, I didn't make this much an hour either." Hehehe!

My plumber's response to such comments from doctors is this: "I guarantee MY work."

Being an ex-welder myself... I had written a large paragraph on this issue, almost an essay, but perhaps I'll cut to the chase. Companies have come to treat welder's like dog's, or worse, like hedge funds. :(

I have done many blue collar jobs. A wonderful book on this topic is The Puritan Gift by the Hopper Brothers.

I am so grateful for this. I think we celebrate many good things, but certain things get forgotten or consistently overlooked.

People should lift heavy things, build the things that they use every day. Cherish the things that are dear and have a hand in the making or more contemplation in their acquisition.

It isn't that things are made cheaply so much as it is that we apply value to flimsy things.

Thank you.

I heard someone commenting the other day that kids are not learning to problem solve. I believe that. I teach. Over the years and more and more, students keep expecting to be bailed out of situations instead of reading and understanding instructions and figuring out answers for themselves. This speaker's example was that "back in the day" if you got a tent for Christmas you and the gang planned the sleep out and put the tent up yourselves. Parents were nowhere in sight. If you managed only to get part of the tent up correctly, then, you were uncomfortable and disappointed and so figured it out and made it work next time. You made mistakes and learned from it. You made your own experience good or bad. Parents are either too involved(as in sports) or "pay someone to put the tent up". It is hard to find people like my brother or father that, I swear, they could figure anything out. Problem solving and hands on. It was very obvious on 9/11 whenall of a sudden we had hero firemen; As if the firemen came from nowhere and/or it was OK to be a Fireman again.

The only way we can step out of consumerism is to participate in the production of something, anything. If we always rely on others to do things for us, we cannot appreciate what their work involves. The consumer is getting farther and farther away from production which is being hidden from them. Vocational training should return to the schools and everyone(both boys and girls) should have at least some classes in practical life skills of taking care of a car, a house and to develop some basic skills in building as well as gardening, cooking and yes, sewing. School shouldn't just be about intellectual development, there need to be more hands on experiences for our children.

Thanks Marla! Some of my most fond times in school were spent in shop class and mechanical drawing. My 'guidance counselors' had the same disdain for the skills I amassed over the years of doing with my hands, creating novel designs, building things of great use to me and my families (and even cooking great meals). To those who are advancing even now, consider the source of your counsel. If these 'experts' have never had the experience of creating, doing, or living a full life, think at least twice before you heed their words. In the mean time, get out there with a volunteer organisation and learn how to do, so that you can do for yourself. Dusty dirty tools are not to be shunned or despised. They are the very means for your creation and sustenance of your life. Embrace them and let your best work be done with them.

So Mike says that there is a major skills gap with lots of jobs and no-one to fill them? Huh? What planet is he speaking from? Certainly not here. My cousin works construction. He's broke and basically moving state to state desperate to find work that pays more than minimum wage. My brother is an electrician. His house was foreclosed - why? Well not because he turned down the avalanche of offers. Insane article and not even resembling the truth. Funny, I never imagined Mike as being an ivory tower guy before...

I cannot speak to your brothers situation and skill level, but every trade is sorely in need of a younger generation to take their place. Mike Rowe is right on and his article!

Simply help our children ( boys and girls) amass a tool collection of their own. Start with tape measure,square and level. Build a bird house or pinewood derby car. Turn or kick off the TV & listen to Krista and enjoy your children and fun projects.

I have a BS and MS in engineering that leaves me with a desk job. I love to work with my hands and volunteer at a bicycle co-op whenever I get the chance because I love to fix and teach others to fix theirs bikes.

I often wonder if it would be a waste of an education to quit my day job to find work where I could really use my hands....

First, I want to affirm that I believe in the value of labor unions. I come from a family of working people who believed in the value of labor unions. However, I also know, personally, young people who have completed post-high-school vocational programs who cannot find work because they can't get into their skill's union. My understanding is that some unions are unreasonably exclusive--although I would love to be wrong about that.

Eagerly anticipating the possibility that Krista would interview Mike one day!!?? They are two of the most thoughtful people I know of when it comes to meaning, integrity and respect in the world we live in today.

As a recent comic said, "it is important to have a college degree so you know in what field you are unable to find a job".

We have put too much emphasis on COMPUTER SKILLS and left out the skills that are extremely futile for the existence of our future generations.Home economics and shop are what I grew up with in school. I feel it is an absolute necessity to re~institute the apprentice programs that allowed anyone to learn a job despite their financial ability or prior skills. And with this training, gain the ability for a career. To have gardening in schools, beginning at pre-K level through high school, including solar /wind power , water conservation and the like. Your right about the age of those who are qualified with the knowledge to do the "dirty work". My husband, who is semi-retired is one of those "jack of all trades". He can and does fix anything.( Of course, not the new fandangled automobiles and all their computerized gizmos that are constantly being recalled) SO, please keep up the good work my friend, we are with you 100 %......

I'm 15 and love the fact that you guys went forewords and started this. I'm really the only one at school who is really interested in cars and knowing how stuff works! Everyone else is interested in either sports or video games, and in my family my brother goes "shiny? expensive? I like it."and it just bothers me that the only people i can talk to about wiring or building are my teachers and my grandpa. I mean when you here older guys say "When I was young, we put an engine on a shopping cart and wired it all by myself...". I WANT TO DO THAT!! my brother came had his birthday and bought a harbor freight engine with it but instead of taking it and building something with it he goes "put this on something," I didn't complain obviously, so I made a 3 wheeler with a bike, snowblower, rebar, and the engine.
All I'm trying to say is thank you...

Everyone assumes that there is a shortage of qualified workers, or that people don't want to do certain jobs. I am a high skilled person who is currently unemployed. Companies want my skills, but the wage they want to pay is insulting. Also, I am ex-military, and so many job ads in my field require an associate's degree, completely disregarding the technical training and experience that veterans receive in the service. So, to business owners, if you need high skilled people, first, pay them what they're worth, and second, don't exclude qualified people with unnecessarily restrictive requirements. There are more of us out here than you think. Show us the respect we deserve, and we'll help fill those high-skill jobs.

Your story is my story, I won't say I'm a junk yard dog but remembering the depression growing up with the most optimistic parents, father from potenza Italy in around 1908, mother Hungarian I thought born in Budapest but mother came pregnant and born on staten island, I don't know how they met but I know they got married after my father purchased heir house when he heard his sweetheart was going to loose thier house defaulted on last payment of $15 I think, to a cruel mortgage holder, he had to repurchase the house to keep my grandfathers family intact, like all Italians of that era Mussolini to wipe out illiteracy had everyone go to school to at least 6 th grade , was enough for basics, reading writing and arithmetic, he took after or was inspired by his stepfather a famous architect in Italy , I still have a leather coverd book of marble work used as examples in the great churches there, he was a man of all trades , starting as an office boy for a shipbuilding yard on shooters island between Staten Island and New Jersey famous for all the yachts and later warships I think for both big wars, he learned tin nocking, ship carpentry, was a practical joker one incident caused the "no goosing " sighns to be posted on the island,a man was carrying a long piece of wood near the water edge , pop goosed him with the newspaper he was bringing to mr Gadoy who ran the yard for I think was townsen and Downey, man fell overboard , pop couldn't swim threw a cork ring hit him in the head, knocked him out another yard worker pulled him out was ok, it became a federal crime and had to appear before a judge, it came out in testimony he was under age and was to be let go, my father pleaded with the judge how many people were in need of his salary a long story , the judge declared him 17 or older to keep hi job, many other stories, but from there he learned mant trades. After ww2 he became an expert bricklayer rose to super tenant of many wpa projects, as a kid I would go on jobs and mix cement Cary bricks if a chimney I would never let him carry to the roof, he was a tinkerer would make anything out of copper, wood, taught me much about sewer construction, pitch had to be exact , everything we did had to stand pass an city are state inspection, you know the rules it goes easy, I was allways in grease , allowed me to o anything in the garage, I built a boxboat out of floor boards that floated when 11 years old,made a diving helmet out of a tin 5gallon can , put tied a window in it soldered a garden hose fitting in it , my brother pumped his brains out only to have it slowly fill and almost drown, needed more air, I became a pretty good electrician, rewired old houses , plumbing , installed boilers , as kids used to race old cars from the junk yards, used to tow an old welder to the Weisglass stadium on staten isl, needed to put together the car when crashed , I tell you this story because it is all over for people like us, you have to grow up thru hard times I had to shoot small game , even pigeons for the Sunday dinner,
Growing up in a patriotic town called Travis, seeing my neighbors die in different wars, when in grammar school or shortly after I joined the national guard to go fight the enemy , after awhile with my parents wondering where I went after I finished my training driving tanks shooting everything the army had , they found out I was too young and gave me an honorable discharge, when I graduated high school I joined the army security agency, went to Korea , the war ended I volunteered to go north to pyang yang to keep our ears open,discharged in 56, wasted all my separation pay in the local gin mill, stopped drinking after spending it all in the local pub m when I was broke went in the bar, he was making a pot of chicken soup , I asked for a bowl he said a dollar I didn't have he said no soup , I never went back to a bar again, got a job in General Electric factory trained repairman for the hot point line , became the factory rep for all appliances they made, covered ny and New Jersey locally, was a bricklayer for awhile , joined nyc fire dept, stayed there 30 years
Sad part of the story is buying a old almost condemned house for $6000 in 1961,
Pop and I gutted it to the beams , rewired , plumbed , had a coal stove in the kitchen, put in an boiler I liberated from a house being bulldozed for the staten island expressway thanks to the destruction of Staten Island and other areas by robert Moses, that boiler I just replaced with an old gas fired high effiency pulse boiler I was factory trained on another story, became obsolete because of the lack of qualified repairman, it's more effiecent than any on the market with my added heat exchanger to squeeze almost the last btu out of it before venting,
I keep going into story's, what I mean here I bought a house to continue what I did as a kid, build boats, machinery, repair cars , engines, weld, whatever you want to do in a free country, what happens land gets sold around you, houses gets built by people , city people come here to enjoy the trees and shade they cut everything down , complain when leaves blow in thier yard, they don't rake they hire migrant yard services while thier kids do nothing, I tried to give a kid some tools to do some small repairs on thier friends cars , change oil etc, tells me he makes more money in one day than I do in a month, he was doing drugs, like many kids here, one day I saw a guy hitting him on the ground, I went next door got the guys to help break it up , they said no was being arrested, I recently saw him serving at a lighthouse affair I volunteer in, he looked good , had a job told me he wished he took my advice
So I'm in an area now , that have to be carefull , weld , test engines, make noise, only when the sun shines not to bring too much attention ,
I should of been a shop teacher of something , I have friends that hang around, but no kids that want to learn what I can do, with all the drug ctivity going on I have to be carefull who comes in my yard I have a lifetime of artifacts hanging on my shed most all bronze brass from all the years of wreck diving, allways a car apart, or rebuilding boat engines, tools all over the place, occasional junkie walks in to sell me some stolen article, I physically escort him out he understands not to return ,
Where in the city can a kid like me when young who wants to build boats, weld, hunt, race cars, dive, I think it all starts you have be poor enough to get a job and work for 13cents an hour in a bakery as I did , no allowance, won't happen all these jobs taken by people like me from other countries, they will soon do the welding , building etc because we must go to college and learn nothing
Sorry mike I get out of hand , I'm over 80 and would do it different if I had the chance, google me "Fanuzzi's gold" a sweet girl Georgia gruzen followed me for a year for a class project , went broke doing it, I didn't know , she wanted to sell the DVDs can't didn't get rights to some music in there , so can give it away, if you want to see it email her or me I will send it to you, I have trouble watching it
Ed Fanuzzi

I graduated with a BFA in 1998 from Virginia Commonwealth University. I now owe about $50,000 for an education, that for the most part, I will never use. I am currently a painting contractor in Tallahassee, FL. I also lay tile, hang drywall, and do some plumbing and guttering.I am not and will never be a lady who works in an office. All of these things I learned on the job and well, really because it was the easiest way for me to support myself and my two boys ( who have come to work with me often). This is very hard work and more and more I work for older people who tell me that the people their families have depended on for years to do skilled labor are dying out. They are always surprised first that I am a woman doing this work and that I have the work ethic that I do.i am very interested in teaching young people and especially young women to do the kinds of hands-on work that I do. There is such a need and it only seems to be growing.
That said, I recently did some painting work for some people a little younger than me who just could not believe that paying me a living wage was fair to them. I had to explain to them, in writing, twice, exactly what they were getting. I had to fight for my paycheck after working for weeks in 100 plus degree weather on a 35' ladder, painting for them. They are fairly fresh out of college and have no real life skills and have never done any hands-on work. It was extremely frustrating. I wish more kids had to learn some real skillsat least so that they could appreciate the work being done for them.

I work primarily as a writer, but I find physical work immensely satisfying, and it provides me with some "thinking time." I'm thankful for the people who taught me various skills.

Wow! This story really hits home. I just about burst into tears when Mike talked about his grandpa being a magician, so was mine.

I had to make my way out of a military aircraft mechanic's job into an engineering career after attending many years of college. The four-years experience and my FAA license never helped me get a job.

I left home at 17 to join the Navy and never came back to live. I made my own way, no free car, no $80,000.00 college gift from my parents. I made my own advantages, and I'm proud of that.

It's true. It's just like Mike says, no one values the skills, efforts and pride that "working" men put into their work. They're under-appreciated, Under-paid and overworked. Just the other day, I had to explain to someone complaining about how much they'd have to pay a painter. They thought they should only be making like $10.00 an hour.

This person works in a hospital, so of course she feels she should be making $50/hour as an LPN. Wow! Six months of nurse's training and you're better then everyone else!

One thing to reflect upon, which is that most company's upper echelon (obviously privileged and college educated in prestigious colleges) look down upon those who do not fall into their paradigm of success and usefulness as nothing more than commodities. They say they want those skilled blue collar workers but are unwilling to acknowledge their worth by paying a fair and decent wage. Yes, it's true some professions (welders, plumbers, etc.) can make a good living but normally only if they work for themselves. Corporate America has itself devalued skilled labor as an operating expense that must be quelled in order to maximize investor and CEO profits. You get what you pay for and I am reminded of the saying that, "Skilled labor isn't cheap and cheap labor isn't skilled". Something corporate America needs to acknowledge at some point between teeing off at their exclusive country clubs. Would be nice if there were more Mom & Pop businesses which might afford young people an opportunity to learn and advance in a skilled trade. Unfortunately the situation we have today is that most jobs are controlled by huge conglomerate hegemonies who see the value and worth of a human being's skill and labor as nothing more than a base plus or minus on a balance sheet or stock return. We have become profit and loss statements and have lost our humanity and due respect as essential components of what makes America great. We have become nameless, faceless numbers on a spread sheet. As long as those at the top, including all of the millionaires in Congress, continue to value the rest of the working classes and their labor and toil as nothing more than an inconvenient expense to their bottom line I'm not sure if there is much hope. The only counter to corporate greed and largesse was trade unions which now have become akin to anti-American behavior and subversion. Shame, shame.

I am a teacher. I have worked with students who have IEP's (individual educational plan) because they are identified of having a learning disability. These students are often very smart, kind and will become great citizens. They feel dumb because they wont live the American Dream of not going to college. Many of them that I know, hold rank of Eagle with Boy Scouts of America. I feel America needs factory,technical and vocational trade jobs for people who want to work.

Hurrah for Gov. Haslam (TN) who has instituted FREE 2-year community college to any high school graduate in Tennessee. That's a major beginning to re-supplying our trades-related workforce.

Imagine a salesman with an Mdiv. School was never a place I excelled in grades, but I had fun. During High School I was a paper boy, and helped the local milkman deliver that precious libation. I also worked in a local gas station during a time when the gas jockey also worked along side a mechanic and learned how to fix other cars and Hot Rod their own. After just about passing Junior college, I began working for a Typesetting company; one that still exists today due to re-inventing. In 3 months at the age of 20 I was asked to join the sales department. I was sales manager at 24 and VP at 26. I loved the work in all respects for 34 years. But I had a call to ministry and enrolled at McGill for a "4" year Bth degree and a 5th year for my Mdiv. The results of a life time of the trades and the opening of the mind to academics is priceless and in good timing. Imagine a university, like that of a mega hospital, dealing on one campus with life; the beginning, the middle and the end. A place where everyone can work and grow by learning together, networking in and through a formation that blends and integrate skills. A place and environment that fulfils the needs of those learning, seeking employment and offering employment to those who want to join in to the vision of the visionaries. Would this allow the Steve Jobs to stay in rather than dropping out to drop in? In my five years at McGill I felt for the many young people who had no idea where their hard earned cash, or outlandish debts would bring them. All the time hearing my corporate friends saying, “there are no trained people out there for what we have to offer... Thanks Mike for getting dirty and not being afraid of splash back. God Bless America and the great land of the Canucks too.

I couldn't agree more. We have one person who we call to "right all the wrongs" that seem to occur on a weekly basis at our home whose value to us in immense. He has a daughter who just graduated from a high school in Northern Virginia that does offer a technical training alternative to an academic college bound degree found at the great majority of high schools here. She apprenticed with him on every job that he did for us and now is working for a car dealership apprenticing to further her skills. She is pursuing her life's dream and she looks forward to each day with pride and appreciation.

I envy her when I compare her with so many young college educated graduates who are struggling to find a job or who are finding very little true satisfaction in what they are doing.

The bias and disrepect toward workers isn't just about blue-collar / white-collar,it's now tangible in varied organizations when management hoards more than their share of benefits at the expense of those who do the hands-on work. Somehow, those who talk about the work are worth more than those who get it done. Ask health care workers who have lost their benefits and other highly skilled employees who rank low in their organizations. Workers managed by MBAs who really don't care who treats the patients or who creates the real value in companies and organizations.

My son has an undergraduate degree in Finance and a graduate degree in Macroeconomics. He gave up trying to find a good paying career in the private sector so he started his own business as a mechanic in the yachting industry. He is doing very well and is able to come home to his family every night.

My father was an orthopedic surgeon and my mother was a nurse. I was always taught about the value of extensive education. However, when I think of my late father, I don't think of him as the educated and skilled surgeon. My fondest memories are of the man who would have my brother and/or I help him as he fixed the toaster, the lawn mower, the table fan. We helped him build a wooden sled to tow us behind is 16' boat out on Great South Bay on Long Island. He built a sailboat from a kit to sail on that same bay. On almost a daily basis, I feel that I honor my parents most not as a now-educated former Navy and airline pilot, but as a man who fixes "stuff" with his hands like his father. My father fixed both people and stuff with the same hands, and he fixed a lot of both. Never under estimate the value of skills vs. book learning. We have the best educational institutions in the world, but they were built and are maintained not by professors and over-charged students, but by men and women of the trades. Regarding employment, the electrician working at a school has skills and knowledge which have immediate value in our economy. Not so for the school's students when they graduate. As a country, we need to value and honor our trades men and women.

Mike Rowe,


I Have lived long enough to be a first hand witness to death of the American Manufacturing empire. For the last 40 years I supported a family through the wonderful world of American Manufacturing- It was manufacturing that took me from poverty -Living the American Dream

I am the currently chairman of the Hernando County School Board - 2 years ago I put my income life on hold because I want to devote as much time as possible trying to make a positive change in education for the survival of "America The Beautiful"

Thank you for all you are doing


If you would like to collaborate any where, any time

Gus Guadagnino


so you want to make construction trades available for free to school students.
it takes smarts to build things, indeed.
if a fool can`t do fractions they are worthless for precision work.

yes fundamentals should be instructed in schools and you dont need expensive elaborate labs .

a tape measure and hand drafting are where it all starts and if they cant grow from there , they are no good for any field.
general algebra and physics concepts haven`t changed ever.

SPECIAL ED has no business in the construction industry.

don`t use the shop classes for a dumping grounds for the untrainable !

My feelings entirely- but alot more articulately!

My grandfather, the dentist, while he knew how, didn't do his own carpentry or plumbing. There were no DIY projects after he completed the tarpaper shack and well required to improve his land to get the deed to his homestead, which he sold to set himself up in business. It was the depression. He said, "If I repair my own plumbing, where does the plumber get the money to pay me to repair his teeth?" I also remember a line from the Sand Pebbles about breaking another man's rice bowl. Work, the ability to feed and house your family because of it, brings dignity and self respect. At some level it is the most fun you can have in the world, the most satisfying thing in the world in my experience. It is because they can't find work, that people start selling drugs and turn to violence. But somehow we have gotten so we don't respect the people who work for a living, we don't talk or think about blue collar workers the same way we talk about white collar workers. We act like they are interchangeable parts in a machine, easily replaceable, like kleenex, use them up, throw them away. And our current situation is a reflection of that. If the public has gotten so that they have less respect for intellectual property, maybe it's a backlash against the disrespect for the knowledge and skill required to do a good job at manual labor. The TV show Undercover Boss shows us that, while there are workers out there who are not giving their best, there are lots of people who take pride in what they do, understand the skills involved, and work very hard for a living. This political season as we talk about expanding Social Security vs. cutting benefits and/or raising the retirement age, we see that the leaders of our country don't respect the people they represent, think we are lazy and without ambition. This Labor Day weekend I again am saddened by the fact that we have not told the next generation about the struggle to win a 40-hour week, or paid overtime, or sick leave. They don't know that people died to win those things for them, that it is part of the fight for freedom as surely as the Marines at Iwo Jima. It is time to start supporting union shops again, not crossing picket lines, and hiring skilled labor instead of doing it yourself more often. If you want respect for the work you do, you need to respect the work of others.

Meaningful. Agreed that vocational education is essential and at least a part of the rebuilding and maintenance of a skilled work force. Take note Bernie. Please add the Mike Rowe ideas to your "FOR THE WORKING CLASS MESSAGE".

I was one of the had to work to survive. My parents died when I was young

I am a 75 year old man. I grew up in a rural area of Canada where everyone had more than one skill set . My father was a Jack- of All- Trades that included me at a young age as an associate, and I learned all of the trades that he practiced. From there and with my comfort of physical labour, I went to France to "find myself". I became an architect, but to arrive there, I had to earn my way by being a miner, a carpenter, a labourer, a graphic designer, an electrician , a line man, a draftsman, an urban designer, a contractor, an artist, and a husband. Today , I still have a practice as an architect, and also share a studio with my life partner as a Public Artist.
Life , for me, has not been a focus on one road, but many. All of these roads lead to who I am.
Bill Baker

Mike, thank you. At some point our society needs to wake up and realize that W.O.R.K. is not a dirty four letter word. My father and grandfather both worked as a farmer and electrician. My 3 sisters and I learned how to work with our hands, dig, mow the grass, paint a house. We were side by side one time as my father re-roofed our house. I did become a teacher and I'm sickened by what our school system is not teaching our children. Manual labor is another dirty word. Our society is now hell-bent to get most of our children in debt with a four year degree that will not bring them the money they are blindly promised by the colleges. I've looked into the eyes of those students who feel ashamed they they are not going to college but instead becoming auto mechanics, carpenters and electricians. We are building a society of anxiety rattled kids who have been brainwashed that they only way to get ahead is to get that four year degree and $100,000 in debt! MIKE I APPLAUD YOU! I wish all of America would read what you just wrote.

This is wonderful. Is it possible to get a copy of the speech?

Beautifully written piece. My only concern is the way that so-called "higher" education is posed against "vocational" education. I think we need to eliminate this distinction. Skills are important and should be valued whether they are of the jack of all trades variety or more abstract intellectual skills. Together, both make for a well-rounded person. If everyone knew that they can earn a decent living with the skills that attract them and that no skillset would automatically lead to either riches or rags, we would have a far more egalitarian society with far fewer idiotic partisan divides.

I believe we absolutely need to get back to where integrity, honesty and #1 God needs to be apart of our everyday lives. Thank you for your efforts in trying to make a change. God bless you Mike Rowe

Journeyman painter needed. 12.00 hr must have own truck, tools and insurance. Join a union for prevailing wage jobs. sure work 3 months a year if you can get in the first place. There is more to the story than just lack of interest or focus on college.

Too many see manual/physical labor as unglamorous work and work for the less-fortunate. During my twenty-year high school reunion, I ran into a former classmate. When I asked her what she did, she admitted she was a cafeteria worker at the same high school we attended. She made it sound like she was ashamed of how her future had turned out. I asked her, "Does you job help put food on the table? Does it help keep a roof over your and your family's heads? Does it keep the wolves at bay?" She answered "Yes", to which I replied "Then hold up your head high and do not be ashamed of your job. Your job makes a difference and your job counts."

As Principal of an Adult Technical School in Hillsborough County Florida, my husband witnessed true happiness as he watched students reach their goal of certification in several trades. These were students who thought that college was where they would find success - only to have to drop out and struggle to find a place in society; students who knew college was not for them so chose to take jobs fresh out of high school (which of course didn't pay enough once they bought a car or tried to rent an apartment) or students who's parent would hear nothing but college plans - all of these students came with baggage - kids, bills - all the things grown ups shoulder but they wanted to "be" something so they struggled with homework and second jobs to make it happen. Many times the broadest smiles at graduation were from the children who's parents walked across the stage. Sadly even though the school was wildly popular and had waiting lists for entrance the District minimized its role and did not point students in that direction. The average age of a student was 35 - many years away from high school. Technical classes in the high schools are almost non existent. My husband reminded his teachers and students every day - that each day they had a technician to thank for more than one aspect of their easy day and that the day their car didn't start, the toilet didn't flush or the AC didn't chill/warm the house was not the first day they should be respectful of the work it takes to make these things happen. Keep up the good work and thank you for taking your reflection. We continue to preach the importance of technical training - as a first choice - but until we read your testimony felt very tiny.

As a woman, I feel left out of the conversation. The work Rowe describes has traditionally been "mens' work", and although there are women in the trades today, it's still an uphill struggle for equal pay, equal opportunity, equal standing. Where in this piece is the work women do? Once again, "real work" is something a man does.

I would highly recommend interviewing my friend Clem Stark. He has worked as a laborer his entire life. In the 60's he worked as a deckhand on a boat, and after that he worked as a carpenter and a construction foreman in San Francisco. He is much the same as Mike Rowe's grandfather in the sense that he can do almost anything. He has also published 5 books. His books include: Journeyman’s Wages (1995) which won the Oregon book Award as well as the William Stafford Memorial Poetry Award, Studying Russian on Company Time (1999), China Basin (2002), Traveling Incognito (2004), and Rembrandt, Chainsaw, (2011). He is the most engaging storyteller, and poet I have ever met and he definitely knows a thing or two about being a worker. He is in his 70's now but still maintains the homestead he and his wife renovated in rural Oregon. He writes poetry in his pump house, a habit he developed when his son was young and he needed a place of solitude.

One of the most cogent and rational deliveries to congress thatI have seen.......RIGHT ON POINT.......I would vote for him and his grandfather !!

For as long as I can remember, that has been a stigma attached to "shop" classes. Give me a guy who can handle a saw, a welder's torch and a drill over a PhD in economics any day.

Mike Rowe is right on.
I am reminded of Benjamin Franklin. He trusted the hearts and minds of his fellow "yellow aprons " more than he did those of an inbred elite. He saw middle-class values as a source of social strength, not as something to be derided. His guiding principal was a "dislike of everything that tended to debase the spirit of the common people." (W Isaacson)
I believe that Franklin has a particular resonance in this our twenty-first century.

I grew up in Nebraska, where farms and agriculture were the norm, and even in the city you probably detassled corn for your first paycheck. Seriously hard, manual labor in the hot sun; if you have never detassled, then thank your lucky stars. When i moved to Germany after High School, i was surprised to find that not everyone went to a 4 year college, and those that did were the ones who had the best grades and the means to attend. I learned that technical and vocational colleges were the norm for everyone else, and not a "consolation prize" or something to be avoided. A BMW mechanic, for example, can make ALOT of money in Germany (and other places obviously). I point this out, because although i grew up in an area of the country where hard work and blue collar jobs are the norm, the mindset here is still 'go to college and get a degree'. Although we might value the blue collar worker more than other places, we don't value those jobs or espouse them to our kids. Lets take Germany as an example, and start helping kids get to where they want to go without crushing student debt and a worthless degree. Don't go to college because that's what you are supposed to do; got to college because that is what you WANT to do. And if you don't want to, lets provide some alternatives that can provide a great wage and fill a need in the market.

You're kidding. In Australia the artisans such as welders and brickies make a fortune - they charge cash at high rates, pay no tax, and live high on the hog. The average doctor works like a dog and makes far less - and pays tax. So shovel-ready training is good. I encourage my children to marry plumbers and electricians so as to have a wealthy standard of living.

I am in the middle of the baby boomer generation. After leaving high school, where I had taken electives in wood working and was the student advisor in other classes. Constuction called my name just as the early boomers began buying their first houses. In orange county CA where orange trees and strawberry fields once grew houses began to appear. We built tracs of homes as large as 4,000 houses in three or four phases. Many of us were piece workers and were paid for our production. Unlike school work or office work at the end of the day I could see what I had accomplished. To be a hard worker was a virtue. As years went by Jobs and Gates made their marks on the US economy, my work was looked down upon and wages faltered. It was assumed that any blockhead could do my work. That may be, but I can walk down any street in the OC and see my work, it still stands, and will way past my demise.

Trent, I really appreciate your decision to post Mike Rowe's testimony. In my life I have a foot in both worlds, having taught the humanities at the University of Montana for nearly two decades while maintaining a career as a fine woodworker. I now find that former students are coming to me saying things like, "Can I see your shop?" "How do you do that?" "Please, teach me to do that." An innate desire for balance sometimes leads people back to their hands.

My father was a "magician." My husband is, also. It's a glorious thing to watch someone who loves work. I respect a good work ethic more than an education and I don't trust anyone who would demean it. A love of work will get you further in life, to be sure. Another thing I've noticed is, some who have high amounts of education rely on acknowledgement from others to feel satisfied or successful. Honest labor is often its own reward. I applaud what Mr. Rowe is suggesting and working toward. I'll take my place in line as a supporter.

I was with him right up till the end when he felt the need to trivialize the Keep America Beautiful mission to promote his own. It's not a competition, and it's unfortunate that he felt the need to make it one.

I have been reflecting on this subject a lot lately. This piece and the Mike Rose interview Krista did were nuggets I could grasp onto. My husband and I are both dairy farmers. We both have four-year college degrees. My husband has a second two-year associates degree in mechanics. Growing up, if you wanted to go into agriculture you were encouraged to go into the business or science side, not the actual farming. We both got those higher educations and we both returned to farming, a career no less noble than a banker. Daily, I have to problem solve animal health issues, mechanical issues, economically think about tasks, and make decisions on a moment's notice.
Now we have three young children. Questions in my mind are, how do we encourage education while at the same time not putting a "first place" on some options and not on the others. All vocations, whether physical or not, have purpose and meaning. Doing a physical job does not make you second rate, instead it requires a level of intelligence that is more of a wisdom, more art than science on some days.
Thank you for continuing the conversations on these issues.

Due to whatever causes short circuits in brain matter, I discovered early on that higher education was not for me. I studied what I needed to until I reached the point where I ceased to understand, then went on to something else. I do however have a good work ethic, it is all I have. Whatever I did do in my life it was done to the best of my ability. I took pride in my work and performed as if I was always being watched by those who could take my job. If you are going to have "chiefs", you have to have good "Indians". The problem is that everybody wants to be a "chief". I apologize for the political incorrectness, but I thought the phrase to be timely.

As a teacher, I say we MUST have vocational/trade high schools in every school district in the country (tiny school districts could share one with adjacent school districts). I would bet my house that dropout rates would plummet, unemployment would drop, graduation rates would increase, teen crime would decrease.

I taught in the NYC school system back in the 70's. At that time, children were tracked career wise after JHS. In Florida, there is not one pure vocational HS. Teacher unions insist that vocational instructors have a full academic BS degree. The public educational monopoly, including colleges and universities, make their money by teaching useless academic courses that drag out for years. Private technical schools are a better choice for most but they are costly. Money would be better spent by funding career and vocational schools with monies now spent in traditional public schools (average public school cost per student is $13,000 per year.

Raising the minimum wage is simplistic and non working method of addressing the symptom and not the cause. We need to get back to the good old days. I have an 1879 4th grade arithmetic test that no one reading this message can pass.

I taught high school for 25 years in a northeastern urban city . Vo-tech became a dumping ground for kids who had emotional or educational problems. Many did not succeed in their endeavors. Not everyone is cut out for academia. Some of our best and brightest should be tradesmen/women. Perhaps one day the trades will again receive the respect they deserve.

I recently posted this reflection on my Facebook page. It seems relevant here.

I often think that we do not appreciate the work of men enough. I watch them, on the street, in the heat, in the cold, in the rain, carrying boxes, pushing heavy carts, straining to carry deliveries, digging up streets, loading garbage trucks, unloading moving vans, running up stairs to bring me my food or my laundry ...most of this done, uncomplaining and unnoticed. We celebrate the professionals, the writers, the athletes, the doctors, the actors, but where would we be without the labor of these unknown and uncelebrated men?

Funny to me, that I have now seen this topic twice in the past two weeks, because I had been contemplating it myself. In July I purchased a house and wanted a fence built around it so my dogs could have room to run safely. A welder was recommended to us, who, it turns out, has built numerous, maybe countless, wrought iron fences in this small Texas town throughout the past 30 plus years. We called him and he said he'd be happy to do the fence. He came the next day and gave a bid, but said he could not start work on it right away because he had to do the haying at his farm. I, who have always worked in an office with a computer, was in awe of someone who could not only put in a righteous, sturdy, welded fence that will likely last longer than the house it surrounds, but who could grow and bale hay, as well. I truly contemplated how noble it is to have such skills and how satisfying life must be for such a person. I was concerned about the the fence on our sloping yard and my dogs being secure, so I called him to discuss in detail. When I talked about the dogs, he burst out laughing. He said he has built so many fences for dogs, and has measure the width of their noses, the distance of their shoulder to the ground and so on, to keep them secure. He assured me mine would be safe.

The fence was installed on schedule and as budgeted and it looks beautiful, as if it had always been there. It is a very plain fence, but was not a straightforward job because of the slope of the lot and some accommodations for the driveway and utility easements. I would like to send you a photo my husband took of our welder and his helper on the job., making sure a gate was just right. I love the photo because I feel it captures their commitment in that moment to making sure their work was what it should be. No matter what your work, is that not the goal?

Sincerely and with best regards,
Virginia Hamilton

This is so true and thank you for sharing. We need to change the perception, and hard work is rewarding . They push those skilled people to pump out the work so that its not always correct.

Thank you so much for pursuing this crucial theme of conversation. My husband, a lifelong carpenter, and I, a PC(USA) minister, started Lagom Landing in 2012 to engage more young adults (ages 18-25) in taking time (9 months) to discern their next steps in life. Hands-on exploration of carpentry, plumbing, gardening, welding, food preservation, maple syrup production, and cooking are central to the year. Social skills, exercise/exploration of the wild, financial and time management, and learning to pursue that which "gives us life" (St. Ignatius) is woven throughout our daily activity. Our students meet and learn from area farmers, small business owners, and volunteer at area nonprofits. What we've found is that the hands-on part of the program frees up our students' minds to reflect on who they are and what direction they want to go in life. The satisfaction of working with their bodies builds students' confidence and the skills they learn are valuable in the marketplace. Some of our students go on to college, but they are more deeply grounded and focused, less likely to borrow money for a degree that sucks the life out of them. We love engaging in conversations about the skills gap and would be happy to reflect with you! We're located in the western Finger Lakes of New York state and absolutely love this region and sharing it with others. Be in touch!

Trent, I would like to add to Mike's comments. I believe Mike is right, that we can and should do something about the 'skills gap' and that we are out of balance on what type of work we value in the country. (I actually just listened to Krista's talk with Mike Rose this morning, which echoed many of the same sentiments. But, I believe Rowe's assessment that we can solve or even significantly address these issues with a national PR campaign is mis-directional. The issue that gets too little attention in this discussion is the responsibility of employers to create workplaces that allow people from different backgrounds, people with non-traditional 'intelligences' to thrive. So often we put the onus on the worker. We blame the worker or their 'education' (which is accurately assessed as almost completely ineffectual for many of our low-income, minority youth and young adults). But, the employer and employees have had a significant role to play creation and perpetuation of the 'skills gap.'

Father G of Homeboy Industries, in his remarks during the recent Global Homeboy Network Gathering, talked about it in terms of nonprofit service-provider, but I also think there are some major overlaps that employers need to heed. Father G said: "Programs especially in the US want to view it from the outside and say 'here is what your problem is' and then they identify what the problem is and then seek to set up a goal for people. This is the 'ascent model' or the ladder. [Service Providers or employers say to homies or people who are potential employees: 'You are way down here and we want you to be here. So, in two years you are going to be employable, because right now you are unemployable. In two years you will have built your character because now it is bankrupt. In two years you will be trained and certified and educated, because right now you don't know very much. In two years, you will embrace my traditional family values.'...Nobody in this room ever met a bad diagnosis that led to a healthy treatment plan. That has never happened in the history of the world. So, it is important not to let [this way of thinking], the outsider view, drive what we do."

I have been working in Title 1 Denver Public Schools for the past 10 years on Career & Workforce Readiness programs, coordinated the City's Summer Youth Employment Program multiple years, created and implemented multiple internship programs and supervised dozens of teacher/facilitators doing this work. I am also married to the State Refugee Employment director, intimately involved with her work as well. From this perspective I write (though rather meanderingly, but I digress).

I can't tell you how many times we've supported youth from low-income communities with creative ways to break into middle skill and white collar jobs. For example, teaching an entire semester class dedicated to passing the Xcel Energy entrance exam, just to see no students able to pass it ( the test must be passed in order to be considered for employment as a lineman; a test which like many standardized tests may not truly be screening for skill or ability, but something closer to test-taking skill and amount of formal education a test taker may have received); Or, how many students are excluded from the opportunity to interview for a job simply because they don't have a US 'industry recognized' certification or college degree (employers think they need someone with a college degree or certain certification, but many times, actually simply need someone to demonstrate the ability to problem-solve); Or, how many times students have prepared for hours to get their foot in the door and succeed in a corporate internship, just to struggle seemingly insurmountable obstacles, not in abilities, but in cultural barriers. In the way the employer and co-workers are completely foreign to the worlds within which our students have grown up. Two classic examples: how students learn on the job and how students build relationships. Then I see all these nonprofits who exist to teach students how to mimic and 'become part of the middle class.' It never works, because these are programs making a judgement about people and trying to change them to become more white and middle class (you may be familiar with the Democracy Collaborative, who is leading the charge in restructuring a new economy). Instead, we need an extreme change or heart and perspective on how we view and treat others. As Father G so consistently and articulately states: We belong to each other.

Employers and employees not only have the responsibility of re-structuring how people get a jobs, because our current system often excludes those with talents that are hidden in this culture. But, we also have the responsibility of diving into our souls and analyzing how the subtle ways we view each other and act toward create workplace cultures that, even when someone with a different background achieves the feat of landing a job, excludes and judges them (many times to the point of either suppressing their true selves or squeezing them out, these cultures have a ripple effect on creating and sustaining the 'skills gap.'

I thought Mike did an excellent job on his testimony and what a great topic that is really so important to the future of our county and today's young workers or people looking for work. I really appreciate people like Mike that take the time to go before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation on such an important issue. " You go Mike, you rock"

This made me think overwhelmingly of my grandfather, a farmer who at 79 still gets up at 5 AM and plows peanuts, repairs tractors and combines, and "comes home dirty" every single night. I've never seen him completely clean unless it was Sunday. His hands are probably semi-permanently blackened from the dirty and grime they've been covered in for the majority of the previous four and a half decades.

Despite his example of relentless hard work, he also insisted that I perform well in school and get advanced degrees. A child of the Depression, he dropped out of school in the fifth grade to work with his sharecropper father. He never had the chance to get an education, so he always placed huge value on it. He married at 18 and worked in insurance until saving enough to buy land and a house in "the country," where he has farmed his heart out ever since. He raised a daughter, sent her to law school, and revels in her many professional accomplishments.

Of course, I couldn't/can't help but absolutely worship him. If ever there was a hardworking man, Johnny Bradley is it. He loves the land almost as much as his wife of 61 years. "I don't play," he often says. "I quit school because they had recess." I have a Master's and a partial PhD, but I still call him a few times a week - Grandpa, why is my car making that noise? Grandpa, my toilet is doing something weird. He can diagnose from 300 miles away and has rarely been wrong. He is a self-taught marvel, and it makes me terribly sad to think that his type of "education" is assigned so little value. I've never admired anyone more.

I also recommend Mike Rose's book The Mind at Work: Valuing the Intelligence of the American Worker.

I love this piece,, and your focus on this topic. My father was a WWII Veteran, and he, too, knew how to do literally everything. He built the house in which I grew up, himself; he did everything with his own knowledge and confidence. The only thing he had assistance with was the electrical work. Until he died at age 92, he could tell me how many brick were on the house, because he laid everyone of them, and before he died, I made sure he showed me how to lay bricks. We never had a repairman, because my dad knew how to fix everything. He even taught me how to lay out a pattern so that I could make my own dresses. I could go on and on about my father who I admire greatly, but want to respond to request for ideas to promote the trades. First, young people need to be taught during their youth, like you were, but I am afraid that now, it won't be along side parents and grandparents necessarily. Perhaps the tradesman in communities could be enticed to take on young apprentices. In addition, we must place value on the trades again in our middle and high schools. And I think we must also let young people know that there is money in this business. Finally, I am reminded of Mr. Rogers who would have a segment of his show dedicated to interviewing various workers like mailmen, plumbers, etc., and Mr. Rogers would explain how important their work was. That type of things gets us when we are young. Mr. Rogers made it knows that all work was valuable, and all workers should be considered valuable. I love what you are doing.

I've been a Contractor/builder/carpenter/tile setter for forty years. I grew up in a family that expected "more" of me, and sent me to the "best" private prep school. There, I did pretty well, but the guy I really connected with (besides my latin teacher) was my shop teacher. My hands were just made to make things, and still are. I tried to get into a couple apprenticeship programs after a couple years of college, then decided to just hire on as a helper and go from there.
For many years, I've owned my own very small construction company. I've always been right out there with my guys, usually the first one there and last to leave, building the houses, or additions, or remodels, etc. How many times did I hear from my wife, "Take all that off out there before you come inside!" because I'd come home with both mud and sawdust on me.
I used to have lots of kids come to me looking for work. I hired ones I thought might work out, and made it my business to teach them well. The particularly talented ones I urged to go on to college, and so lost many of my best, but they were ones that definately could benefit from higher ed.
Now, it's rare to have a younger person come to me looking for work. Really rare. It's as if construction and the trades, particularly post recession, is really off the radar for the younger generation. My workers come, literally, from Mexico. And now that the flow of immigrants from there has slowed so much, even they are few and far between.
I'll be retiring in a few years. So I personally will make it through this problem unscathed. But what about my younger friends? What about my plumber who hasn't found anyone to apprentice in three months? And about my electrician who just lately, after a couple months of advertising, found a 45 year old apprentice?
We've done many projects for doctors, engineers, professors, etc, who think we're miracle workers. In our company, we each do a wide variety of work items, and we become good at them. If young people really knew what s skilled job that's a bit gritty could be like, I think it could compete well with the supposed glamor of the keyboard lifestyle.

Thank you Mike for your compassionate presentation on closing the skills gap. You are 100% correct that education and training come in a variety of formats: apprenticeships, career certificates, and traditional degrees. The secret that's not so dirty - is that they all matter. I work at a community college where the average student is 32 years old. Why do they wait so long? Because they did not believe they were "college material." All those years of income earning potential lost, not to mention the loss to industry and our economy. Educating America on the skills gap and how to close it should be our top priority! Sign me up, Mike!

I think you missed two of the more critical elements responsible for this problem: money and, related, union busting. I worked as a carpenter during the first 10 years of my adult life (during the Reagan and Thatcher administrations). I could barely pay my bills, had no health insurance or vacation time. I changed my occupation as a matter of financial necessity. I am now retired. If I had remained in the occupation of carpentry, my daughter would not have gone to college and I would be impoverished (no savings, no 401K, no pension, and a Social Security check with a value placing me in the statistical group, poor). We've made our decisions at the ballot box, and our elected representatives have passed laws accordingly. Robert Reich's economic analysis of the years from 1980 to 2010 is now widely known. Any surprise at the fact that young workers are avoiding hourly wage jobs in the trades is either naive or disingenuous. The above is just fact; as an editorial comment, it is time to cast our votes based on reason, not attitude, and not some religious belief (unless of course you think that the countries of the Middle East are a good model of government).

This article hit very close to home for me. I attended my local Joint Vocational School (JVS) when I was in high school. I was very interested in electronics and wanted to get a jump start into my career/profession. When I look back I also believe that I took this path because I wanted to have something in common with my father. My father had his own business before I can remember as a TV repair man in my local town. In his days this meant vacuum tube technology. My studies quickly moved into integrated circuits and microprocessors which was way beyond what my father understood. So I still did not have much in common with my father.

I did learn a lot while attending the JVS including the comradery of all of the different trades that were represented at the school. My career eventually moved into computers, networking and eventually Information Technology but I still utilize the skills that learned at that vocational/trade school.

You are absolutely correct that the focus is all about 4 year degrees and more. Most of the students in school these days do not even have an idea what they will do after college. I worked hard to find a job before I left high school and I have been working ever since. I just do not understand the people who would rather mooch off of others than work hard themselves to make a living. There are too many young people out there who have no interest in ever working for a living. I have seen so many young people who believe that they can earn a living playing video games. What ever happened to the "best and the brightest"?

Too many chiefs and not enough Indians is becoming the American way. Not everyone can be a manager, director or vice president; someone needs to actually do the work. People who attend a vocational or trade school will be the builders of our future not the philosophers. The movie Demolition Man was a great example of where we are headed if we do not correct our path.

My name is Brian Laubenstein. I am a Master Electrician in the state of WI. I feel movement needs to start in America and maybe it has already started out of necessity and supply and demand issues that are surfacing. The support and recognition and value needs to start with influence early on from parents, teachers, guidence counselors. I feel that the core trade jobs/careers of plumbing and electrical along with vast group of other careers that have the same kind of importance ex... butchers, welder, roofers, siders, insulation, fire protection need the recognition of that importance. I think at some point society will be forced to see how important some of these trades and professions are. It's Already happening in the electrical field, shortage of qualified personnel, wages go up and thus cost of the project goes up. Young people who take advantage of this now might really be setting themselves up nicely for their future.

Anyone who thinks service or skilled trades are "dumb" career choice, I challenge them to take some of the certification and licensing tests my husband goes through for his HVAC/R license. I challenge you to incorporate your 40 hr work week AND a continuing ed class every quarter of the year. Usually 10 weeks of night classes. Then there are the classes presented by the manufacturers of the equipment. Innovation in these fields require constant upgrading of your knowledge base. Math, Algebra, Trig, Physics, Engineering, are all needed in these fields. Not to mention the thousands of pages of Building Code, Federal, State and local that you must stay abreast of. When you encounter work done by Tom, who was trained by his uncle Joe and have to shut down a house system because it is poisoning the family with carbon monoxide, then tell me how /why the mentality shifted to label these careers as insignificant. While industries change, and a career choice or field may fill up or actually go belly up.... people will always need housing, heat, cooling, plumbing electricity that fill them, or transportation. Sounds like the smarter ones are those that chose the longevity of these careers.

Mike Rowe is right -- our educational "system" and our society at large have somehow coalesced around a narrow approach to defining work. This has resulted in a disservice to our children individually as well as to society in general. Another uniquely American model that provides clues to a better system has been used for decades by the U. S. Military. Using ASVAB (Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery) testing, the Military guides its enlistees towards well-defined jobs in which they are likely to succeed because they possess the aptitudes known to be necessary for success in a particular job. I'm not suggesting this system be replicated in the civilian world, but I don't see why our educational institutions continue to focus exclusively on reading, math and writing in determining the individual gifts -- indeed the worth -- of each student. Shouldn't American education -- particularly since technology is changing the face of work so rapidly -- be the leader in uncovering each student's strengths, giving added motivation for the student to do well (because she/he is being assessed fairly), thus ensuring that the USA has, not just the most skilled, but the most motivated workforce on earth?

America’s founding values and the leadership traits that embodied them gave rise to the greatest nation on earth. It is through the resurrection of these essential qualities in every American—and a rejection of the pervasive attitude of entitlement and culture of complaint—that the spirit of America will once again empower its citizens and inspire the world. America can and must maintain a leadership role in the world economy. The health of the U.S. economy is inextricably linked to the economic health of the rest of the world. If America is not doing well, the rest of the world is affected. In an interconnected and increasingly competitive global environment, it is now more important than ever to commit ourselves to the core values and policies that have traditionally made America’s economy strong. Chris Salamone works to improve the lives of young people around the world through his many philanthropic endeavors Like holding Leadership programs for high School Students. Chris Salamone is a noted attorney, entrepreneur, social worker and author or two best seller books, one of them is Rescue America which focus on restructuring America.

America’s founding values and the leadership traits that embodied them gave rise to the greatest nation on earth. It is through the resurrection of these essential qualities in every American—and a rejection of the pervasive attitude of entitlement and culture of complaint—that the spirit of America will once again empower its citizens and inspire the world. America can and must maintain a leadership role in the world economy. The health of the U.S. economy is inextricably linked to the economic health of the rest of the world. If America is not doing well, the rest of the world is affected. In an interconnected and increasingly competitive global environment, it is now more important than ever to commit ourselves to the core values and policies that have traditionally made America’s economy strong. Chris Salamone works to improve the lives of young people around the world through his many philanthropic endeavors Like holding Leadership programs for high School Students. Chris Salamone is a noted attorney, entrepreneur, social worker and author or two best seller books, one of them is Rescue America which focus on restructuring America.