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I wanted to congratulate you on your program discussing the moral and social implications of the use of torture by a democratic society. I was especially pleased that you pointed out the need to pay increased attention to moral resisters, like the one you highlighted from the Milgram study. When I teach (at the University of Minnesota) about the causes of human rights violations, I talk about Milgram's conclusions regarding our "predisposition to obey authority," but I also emphasize the important role of the dissenter in his study. When an actor voiced opposition to using the electric shock it significantly changed the outcomes, empowering the subjects in the study to resist the pressure of the supervisors as well. The role of civil society, including human rights activists and NGOs, is to point out the moral risks of torture so that our democratic societies are empowered to refuse to accept immoral practices carried out in our name.

Thanks for your attention to this important issue.