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Well, just look at how the climate scientists are being so deceptive. Michael Mann's big claims are dependent on sleight of hand...
BIG press release "A skillful EIV reconstruction without tree-ring data is possible even further back, over at least the past 1,300 years, for NH combined land plus ocean temperature (see SI Text). This achievement represents a significant development relative to earlier studies with sparser proxy networks (4) where it was not possible to obtain skillful long-term reconstructions without tree-ring data."
Because he was refuted on the validity of his tree ring use to produce the Hockey Stick.
That was 2008. Finally after much war, the admission is wrung out his RealClimate colleague, NASA's Gavin Schmidt
" Question: Under either method (CPS or EIV) it is not possible to get a validated reconstruction to before 1500 without the use of tree rings, or the Tiljander sediments.
Answer: That appears to be the case with the Mann et al 2008 network."

Mike Mann before public exposure
"We place greatest confidence in the EIV reconstructions, particularly back to A.D. 700, when a skillful reconstruction as noted earlier is possible without using tree-ring data at all "…
Recent warmth exceeds that reconstructed for at least the past 1,800 years in the EIV reconstructions, and this conclusion extends back at least 1,500 years without using tree-ring data."

all the claims of 1998 Hottest year and Hottest Decade, and Hotter than ever, are invalid claims, as admitted now.

A skillful EIV reconstruction without tree-ring data is possible even further back, over at least the past 1,300 years, for NH combined land plus ocean temperature (see SI Text). This achievement represents a significant development relative to earlier studies with sparser proxy networks (4) where it was not possible to obtain skillful long-term reconstructions without tree-ring data.
To what is now admitted by NASA's Gavin Schmidt, Mann's colleage at RealClimate. Question: Under either method (CPS or EIV) it is not possible to get a validated reconstruction to before 1500 without the use of tree rings, or the Tijlander sediments.
Answer: That appears to be the case with the Mann et al 2008 network.

It's fascinating, Ex..warming or no warming.

Mike Mann before public exposure We place greatest confidence in the EIV reconstructions, particularly back to A.D. 700, when a skillful reconstruction as noted earlier is possible without using tree-ring data at all "…
Recent warmth exceeds that reconstructed for at least the past 1,800 years in the EIV reconstructions, and this conclusion extends back at least 1,500 years without using tree-ring data.

apples