1. Developing countries theoretically didn't have the means to adapt to newer, cleaner, more technologically advanced (= expensive) technologies. Since developed countries supposedly do, they were supposed to take the lead on this one and "set a good example." Considering that developed countries consume more fossil fuels per capita, its not a bad idea, really. (I mean, for a start at least!)
2. You got me! I'm not really sure!
3. Well, I'm just guessing since you mentioned the Bible that you're Christian, so there are a few Christian arguments I'll guide you towards:--The Earth is the Lord's: (Genesis 1:3, Psalms 24:1, etc.) --God has made covenants with not just man, but all the animals and plants of the Earth before: (Gen. 1:30, Gen. 9:8-17)--You are supposed to care for what God gave you: (Col. 1:16-20)--The Bible repeatedly tells us to be good stewards: (I Peter 4:10-11, parables in Luke and Mark, I forget where)
4. Cynthia answered this well, but I'll add that the other fuels you mentioned are (literally) a fraction of a percent of the emissions of what fossil fuels emit into the atmosphere. They're not big contributers at all. Also, I'd like to add that it takes closer to hundreds of thousands of years if not millions to make fossil fuels, not just centuries--we're talking a *really long time* to make fossil fuels. We're literally burning dead dinosaurs.
5. I'm not sure what you mean--I think you're talking to the "green house effect" which is something different, its why we have life here on Earth at all (why we're not Venus or Mars, actually). Because we have an atmosphere, we lock in the sun's rays (our main source of heat, which I think is what you meant). Because we have CO2, those rays keep bouncing around inside our atmosphere; they get trapped "under" the lid of our atmosphere, warming us up to a nice room temperature (or thereabouts). This is similar to how your car heats up when it sits in the sun. Global warming is this process gone haywire--we can't control the sun, but we can control our atmosphere.
6. You'd have to google this, I'm running low on time ;) I'll just cite current weather patterns, increased drought, hurricanes, adn extreme weather.
7. Not that many--probably just a few talking heads, maybe? Some talkshow hosts? Scientists are comfortable with error because we divulge all of our methods and data, so its a full-transparency atmosphere. The scientific community thrives on self-correction, so people don't get in trouble for being "wrong," there's just "new data." Since virtually all of the data points in the same direction, this seems a moot point, though.
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