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I can't speak for the entire "Islamic world", but in the case of Pakistan, I think the primary cause is the lack (and quality) of education. We have a very low literacy rate, which means that only a small percentage of the population makes it through formal education. In my personal opinion, for those of us who do manage to finish undergraduate studies, education is mostly about finishing the degree so that we can get a job; and not about "learning".

After spending several years in Europe, I see thing differently. I honestly believe that solving the education problem is the key (of course, social systems are complex, and lots of other aspects come into play as well).

Just my two cents!