View the evolving versions of the recitation since its creation in 1892.
Philip Hamburger references the KKK, in the early 20th century, as one of the most prominent anti-Catholic, pro-separation forces in America. An excerpt of this oath from that era is both racist and distinctly in favor of separation.
In the mid-19th century, the white Anglo-Saxon Protestant majority took up the banner of church-state separation as a means to keep Catholics out of public life. They claimed that Catholics held an overriding allegiance to the Roman Church and its government by the pope. The lines of this sermon illustrate this prejudice.
Reading from the Song of Songs was from The Song of Songs: A New Translation, by Ariel Bloch and Chana Bloch, afterword by Robert Alter. (University of California Press, 2000)
taken from John Donne's Holy Sonnets
Omid Safi describes his reasons for using the lyrics of "The Times They Are A-Changin'" in the introduction to his book Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism. Listen and read the lyrics to Bob Dylan's modern folk classic.
Read a letter Malcolm X wrote to Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam, after his departure from the organization and view an actual copy of the typewritten letter.
Read two translations of the poem written by St. John of the Cross.
Read the complete passage from this book of the Old Testament.
The following biblical passage recited by Krista and read during the program was taken from Celebrating Common Prayer: A Version of the Daily Office SSF.