A basketball court transformed by flowers and incandescent light. Four thousand people in attendance. Four global religious leaders. I have never concentrated as hard as I did in the two hours I spent on that stage. But it was, in the end, a delight. And it was fascinating as an encounter as much as a conversation. The Dalai Lama's embodied joy, his radiant and playful presence, was as defining as the words he spoke. The biggest challenge with discussing "happiness" in this culture might be finding our way back to the substance of that word itself — a substance that has been hollowed out by its uses in culture. I found myself very much planted in the definition of happiness that the French-born Tibetan Buddhist scientist/monk Matthieu Ricard offered on this program in 2009. He defines happiness as "genuine flourishing" — not a pleasurable sensation or mood, but a way of being in the world that can encompass the fullness of human experience — joy and pleasure as well as suffering and loss. Professor Nasr, Bishop Jefferts Schori, and Rabbi Sacks all added to that definition as they laid out the virtues and habits, the spiritual technologies, that their traditions have carried forward in time. They all described corollaries, in a sense, to the Dalai Lama's joyful yet disciplined teachings on cultivating compassion and calmness in the mind as way of flourishing in and amidst all of life's experiences. But the most exciting part of interreligious encounter, for me, is not rushing to hear similarities but savoring particularities — the distinctive vocabularies of thought and practice, the beautiful and intriguing differences that come to light even as we may seem to be circling towards the same goal. And so among my favorite moments are Prof. Seyyed Hossein Nasr's explication of beauty as inextricably linked to virtue and happiness in Muslim tradition. Beauty, he says, makes the soul happy. Bishop Jefferts Schori talked about the long tradition in Christianity of practicing gratitude and "the presence of God" in the midst of ordinary activities of life. Rabbi Sacks evoked sabbath as a space to focus on the things in life that are "important but not urgent." He described the extraordinary power of pausing to let life's "blessings" — an awareness of the deepest sources of our happiness — "catch up with us." Such reflections unsettle notions of happiness as a "right" and as something to be "pursued." A discussion of happiness is intrinsically serious, too. As we were also reminded in the course of this discussion, spiritual happiness is never merely personal in nature. It is linked to an awareness of the suffering and pleasure of others. And at the same time, it is something we cultivate in our bodies as well as our minds. It communicates itself in our very presence. There was, fittingly, a great deal of laughter on this stage of religious dignitaries seated center court at Emory. There was a festive atmosphere in the room altogether. Listen, and watch, for yourself. Ponder, and enjoy.
Voices on the Radio
is the exiled spiritual leader of Tibet. He is the author of many books, including Ethics for a New Millennium.
is Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth and author of several books, including The Dignity of Difference.
is Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church who holds a doctorate in oceanography.